Masks and face coverings protect others and ourselves from COVID-19.
In California, we are required to wear masks whenever outside our homes and around others. Masks are very effective at preventing respiratory droplets coming out of the wearer’s nose and mouth. Masks provide protection for the wearer too, reducing our exposure to droplets that may contain the virus that causes COVID-19.
On this webpage, we will cover why masks are helpful, what types of masks and materials are effective, how to make your own masks, and how to wear and care for masks.
Why are masks helpful?
1. People without symptoms spread COVID-19.
Studies show that almost half of all people with COVID-19 don’t have symptoms at the time of transmission. When we’re around a group of people, we won’t know who has COVID-19 and who doesn’t. The only way to prevent spread is for all of us to wear masks and maintain 6 feet or more distance when around other people indoors and outdoors.
2. COVID-19 is transmitted by respiratory droplets, which masks block.
The virus lives in droplets that come out of our noses and mouths. When we talk, these droplets travel 6 feet. When we cough or sneeze, the droplets can travel up to 30 feet. Yuck! Luckily for us, face masks are effective at blocking these droplets.
3. Wearing masks protect others and ourselves from COVID-19.
What type of masks and materials are effective?
The most effective mask is the one that you will wear!
Finding a mask that is comfortable enough to keep your nose and mouth covered without needing to frequently adjust and touch it is the most important thing to look for in a mask.
If you can and want to choose based on potential efficacy: the better the covering fits around the nose, chin and cheeks without gaps, the better it blocks.
Style/fit: Sewn cloth masks with ear loops or ties that go around the head block better than bandanas, gaiters and scarves which are looser. While N95 masks are the most effective at blocking tinier droplets, they are not necessary unless you are doing procedures that aerosolize people’s respiratory secretions.
Materials: Cotton and non-woven polypropylene are shown in studies to be the most effective and breathable mask materials for blocking droplets.
Cotton and similar fabrics in 2-layers block more than 90% of droplets from being emitted. Even a single-layer of t-shirt fabric can block more than 70% of droplets.
Non-woven polypropylene from matte reusable grocery bags can also be used, particularly as an outer layer with repellent properties.
Filters: Non-woven polypropylene can also be used as a reusable/washable filter. Other single-use filter materials that are commonly used are disposable coffee filters and paper towels. Be careful using vacuum bag material and avoid any containing fiberglass, which is dangerous when inhaled.
Instructions to make your own masks:
- CDC: easy no-sew designs and sewn designs
- Kaiser: sewn, pleated masks with instructions in English, Spanish, Chinese
- Maker Mask: masks made of reusable grocery bag material (polypropylene), basic sewing skills needed
- Olson Mask: fitted mask with filter pocket, for people with more advanced sewing skills
Wearing and caring for masks:
- Wash or sterilize reusable masks and coverings before first use.
- To wash reusable masks, use the hottest water and drier setting that is safe for the material. Coverings can also be washed in hot water and dried in bright sunlight for disinfection. To sterilize, boil in water for 10 minutes.
- Wash or sanitize your hands before and after you put the mask on.
- Take masks off using the ear loops or straps and avoid touching the outside surface before you put it in the wash.
- Wash reusable masks or coverings or discard disposable ones after one trip out in the community.
If you need to reuse a disposable mask because you don’t have other options, only do so if it hasn’t gotten wet, dirty or torn. Consider wiping it on the inside and and outside lightly with a disinfectant wipe and allowing it to fully dry between uses.
Do we have to wear face coverings if we intend to stay or work 6 feet apart?
- Yes, we need to wear face coverings in combination with at least 6 feet of distance. Neither of these interventions alone is perfect, so we need to use them in combination.
Do we have to wear face coverings when working or exercising outdoors?
- Yes, when outdoors we need to wear face coverings and maintain distance. While air circulation is better outdoors, and we may not intend to get close or talk with others, be prepared when it happens by wearing a face covering.
Can we wear our face mask or covering below or nose or mouth, especially in between contacts?
- No. Face coverings need to cover your nose and chin. The masks or coverings should fit well over the bridge of your nose, around the side of your cheeks, and below your chin. Respiratory droplets are exhaled and inhaled through both the nose and mouth. You may expose yourself to inhaling droplets that have gotten on the outside of your covering this way.
Do masks for COVID-19 protect against wildfire smoke and pollution?
- It depends. Smoke and air pollution particles are smaller than the droplets that carry the virus causing COVID-19. Cloth and hospital-type ear-loop masks generally do not filter out these tiny particles. To block smoke and pollution, use a non-medical N95 mask. Medical and non-medical N95 masks are tested to block at least 95% of these smaller particles when they fit well.
You can find all the references in this COVID-19 Harm Reduction document, which is updated regularly with new studies.